Tumor-associated adipocytes promote tumor growth by providing energy and causing chronic inflammation. Here, we have exploited the lipid metabolism to engineer adipocytes that serve as a depot to deliver cancer therapeutics at the tumor site. Rumenic acid (RA), as an anticancer fatty acid, and a doxorubicin prodrug (pDox) with a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-cleavable linker, are encapsulated in adipocytes to deliver therapeutics in a tumor-specific bioresponsive manner. After intratumoral or postsurgical administration, lipolysis releases the RA and pDox that is activated by intracellular ROS-responsive conversion, subsequently promoting antitumor efficacy. Furthermore, downregulation of PD-L1 expression is observed in tumor cells, favoring the emergence of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-mediated immune responses.
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